Microphones, also known as mic's, are a device that captures sounds and converts it into an electrical signal.
Firstly, there are small diaphragm condenser microphones. These mics are thinner, cylindrical microphones. These are good for capturing higher frequency sounds, like cymbals, acoustic guitars, basically, anything you're looking to get quality high frequencies out of.
Then there are Dynamic Microphones. These are great, sturdy, strong microphones that can be used for almost all live music and studio applications.
Thirdly, you have Large-diaphragm condensers. These are THE go-to studio vocal microphone. Whilst they aren't as durable as dynamic microphones, these are one of the best options for great vocal recordings.
Lastly, you have Ribbon Microphones. Ribbon microphones have a slightly high-end roll-off and are really useful for capturing really high detail sounds. They are a version of a dynamic microphone and are really great for recording electric guitar.